امریِ آینده، ساختی نادر در زبان‌های ایرانی

نوع مقاله : علمی-پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد تهران مرکزی، تهران، ایران،

10.30465/ls.2020.5912

چکیده

وجه امری درکنارِ دو وجه اخباری و التزامی جزء مهمترین وجوه دستوری زبان‌های دنیا ازجمله زبان‌های هندواروپایی است. گرچه فعل امری معمولاً برای مقولة زمان دستوری تصریف نمی‌شود، بااین‌حال ساخت امری آینده در درصد کمی از زبان‌های جهان وجود دارد. این ساخت تا به حال بجز یکی دو مورد، یعنی زبان آسی و زبان سغدی، در هیچ‌یک از دیگر زبان‌های ایرانی (باستان، میانه و نو) گزارش نشده است. بررسی پیش‌رو مشخص می‌کند که ساخت امری آینده که از دید رده‌شناختی به‌لحاظ اجتماع وجه امری با زمان آینده موردی نادر محسوب می‌شود، در ابیانه‌ای یکی از زبان‌های فلات مرکزی ایران نیز وجود دارد. برای تصریف فعل امری آیندة ابیانه‌ای وند [-iʃ] به ستاک حال فعل متصل شده و پس از آن شناسه‌های فعلی قرار می‌گیرند و به این شکل از ساخت امری حال متمایز می‌شود. ولی در صورت منفی این ساخت یعنی نهی آینده از وند [-ɔ] به‌جای وند مذکور استفاده می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Future Imperative: A Rare Verbal Construction in Iranian Languages

نویسنده [English]

  • mohammad mehdi esmaili
The Assistant Professor of Persian Language and Literature, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch
چکیده [English]

 
The imperative besides indicative and subjunctive is one of the most important moods in the languages of the world especially in indo-european languages. The imperative verb usually lacks tense inflection that occurs in other moods, therefore the future imperative is quite rare cross-linguistically. However a number of languages have a dedicated paradigm for future imperative. The future imperative has so far been reported for none of the iranian languages, except two languages, namely Sogdian and Ossetian. The present paper also studies a case of future imperative in Abyanei belonging to the Central Plateau Dialects. The Abyanei future imperative is expressed by inserting morphological markers [-iʃ] (in the affirmative) and [-ɔ] (in the negative) between the present stem and the verb ending.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • grammatical mood
  • future imperative
  • Ossetian/Ossetic
  • Abyanei
  • markedness
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