تجلی ایزدان زردشتی بر سکه‌های کوشانی

نوع مقاله : علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه فرهنگ و زبان‌های باستانی پژوهشکده‌ زبان‌شناسی

2 بنیاد ایرانشناسی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

شاهنشاهی کوشانیان یکی از شاهنشاهی­های بزرگ جهان باستان بود که از اوایل سده اول تا میانه سده چهارم میلادی بخش­های مهمی از آسیای­مرکزی و شمال هند را تحت سلطه خود داشت. این شاهنشاهی، به واسطه موقعیت جغرافیایی خاص خود و قرارگرفتن در حاشیه حکومت­های قدرتمند سیاسی و سنت­های بزرگ دینی، محیطی چندفرهنگی را تشکیل داده و بدین ترتیب زادگاه پیدایش و شکوفایی آثار هنری برجسته و متنوعی شد که خود، مجموعه­ای از عناصر دینی، هنری و فرهنگی تمدن­های پیرامون بودند. در این میان سهم عمده­ای از این عناصر را باید مربوط به سنت­ها و باورهای ایرانی دانست که به بهترین شکل بر سکه­ها، که خود از مهم­ترین انواع هنر کوشانی هستند، نمود یافته­اند. بر این سکه­ها شمایل گروه پرشماری از ایزدان مورد پرستش کوشانیان تصویر گشته و به همراه نام بلخی آن­ها معرفی شده است. اسامی اغلب این ایزدان را در منابع زردشتی می­یابیم و شمایل بسیاری از آنان را نیز، علی­رغم شکل­گیری­شان بر اساس شمایل ایزدان یونانی­رومی و نفوذ عناصر هندی در آن­ها، می­توان در تناسب با توصیفات منابع زردشتی از آنان دانست. بنابراین سکه­های کوشانی، به عنوان گنجینه­ای باارزش و بی­نظیر از نام و تصویر ایزدان زردشتی، جایگاهی والا در مطالعات ایرانی و به ویژه شناخت دین زردشتی در شرق ایران دارد که خود با توجه به ناچیز بودن منابع تصویری در غرب ایران و کمبود منابع اطلاعاتی از شرق ایران اهمیتی دو چندان می­یابد، به گونه­ای که شناخت شمایل بسیاری از ایزدان زردشتی بدون وجود آن­ها هرگز میسر نیست.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

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نویسندگان [English]

  • cirous nasrolahzadeh 1
  • Najme Mahdi 2
2 Iranology Foundation, Shahid Beheshti University
چکیده [English]

The Kushan Empire was one of the greatest powers in the ancient world, which dominated key swathes of Central Asia and North India from the early first to the mid-fourth century AD. Thanks to its proximity to powerful political states and religious traditions, this Empire had developed a multicultural environment and become a fertile ground for the flourishing of various artistic masterpieces, which were a valuable collection of religious, artistic, and cultural elements.
In this collection, we can discern the influence of Iranian traditions and beliefs, which is best manifested on coins as one of the most important types of Kushan art. On these coins, the images of a large number of deities worshipped by Kushanian are depicted along with their Bactrian names. Most of the names of these deities can be found in Zoroastrian sources and—despite their iconography, which derives from the Graeco-Roman deities and also reflects the Indian influence—understood in accordance with their descriptions therein. Therefore, Kushan coins, as a valuable and unique collection of the names and images of Zoroastrian deities, play an important role in Iranian studies, especially in the study of Zoroastrianism in the east of Iran. Given the scarcity of pictorial sources in the west of Iran and the overall shortage of information from the east, this resource becomes of vital importance in such a way that without them, it would have never been possible to have recognized the pictures of many Zoroastrian deities we have come to know today.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Kushan Empire
  • Kushan Coinage
  • Kushan Deities
  • Iconography
  • Zoroastrian Deities
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